06-12-2020, 09:11 AM
#41
User Info
Oriental Fragrances

Oriental fragrances comprise one of the major perfume categories on the typical fragrance wheel. They are distinguished by the use of warm, rich, exotic, and sweet notes. Overall tones can be herbal, spicy, dry, powdery, and/or resinous. The perfumes generally are opulent, voluptuous, and seductive. The meaning of the term 'Oriental' has changed over the last several decades, especially with the growing influence of Arabian perfumery.

This perfume genre is called Oriental because it represents the Western fantasy of the mysterious and sensual East that arose in the 19th century. At that time French artists such as Eugene Delacroix and Jean Ingres captured this dream in their paintings of lounging odalisques, tiger hunts, and harem scenes, and French perfumers translated these stereotypical visions through rich notes of vanilla, amber, patchouli, sandalwood, and musk. Although embodying a fantasy image, the Orientals were rooted in perfume's history, using many of the same ingredients that were initially used in India and Arabia at the beginning of fragrance creation. The first contemporary Oriental fragrances were Guerlain Jicky (1889), and Coty L'Origan (1905), Ambre Antique (1910), and Emeraude (1921).

Classical Oriental fragrances have used natural ingredients like heliotrope, sandalwood, coumarin, orris, myrrh, anise, vanilla, musk, and gum resins, but the combinations have been tweaked to aim them to men or women or as 'shared' scents, and they have evolved over time with the changing needs of perfume users. Typically they have strong sillage and are quite long lasting, due to heavy use of the base notes. They are generally extracted and mixed in an oil base that makes the perfume stick well to the skin and allows it to evaporate slowly over a long time. Their prevailing character often is 'adult' and most suited to evening wear.

The most popular Oriental notes in modern products are:
bergamot (top)
pink peppercorn (top-middle)
rose, nutmeg, jasmine, tuberose, ginger (middle)
tonka bean, amber, cedarwood, vanilla, sandalwood, patchouli, orris (base)
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Well-known classical Oriental fragrances are Guerlain Shalimar and Habit Rouge; Calvin Klein Obsession; Frederic Malle Musc Ravageur; Cartier Must; and Annick Goutal Ambre Fetich and l'Artisan l'Eau d'Ambre.

There are defined and recognized Oriental subfamilies, the major ones being Floral Oriental (Floriental), Soft Oriental, and Woody Oriental, which generally represent transition areas blending into adjacent ones on the standard fragrance wheels, along with Fougere Oriental, which combines aspects of all the subfamilies. More recently described subgroups include Spicy Oriental and the minor Aromatic Oriental (usually considered a part of the Floral Oriental type), Vanilla Oriental, and Fresh Oriental (also often combined into the Floral Oriental group). Those Oriental fragrances with dominant amber are usually considered in a separate group due to their accentuated warmth and sensuality.

Obviously some fragrances will lend themselves to more than one subfamily, and there can be disagreement among perceptions. Thus some of the perfumes listed in the groups below appear more than once.

Floral Oriental

Bordering on the Floral category on the wheel, these typically have a sweet, warm, dark, powdery base, often harmonizing with flowers such as gardenia, tuberose, rose, jasmine, peony, magnolia, lily of the valley, or carnation. They have the softness of florals and the warmth of true Orientals.  The majority of them are primarily considered feminine or unisex.  Aromatic florals, one of the oldest groups historically, are considered part of this category.

Some of the recognized more masculine Floral Orientals include:

Abercrombie & Fitch Oud Amour
Acqua di Parma Colonia Vaniglia
Amouage Molook
Bvlgari Man in Black, Garanat, Opalon
Cartier Declaration Essence
Elysees Conviction Black
Fragrance Kitchen Man from Ipanema
Gritti 19-68
Hugo Boss Bottled Oud Aromatic
Korres l'Eau de Parfum 20
Oriflame Excite Force
Phebo Patchouli
Rasasi Junoon Satin
Roberto Cavalli
Sapientiae Niche Ofanins
Xerjoff Shooting Stars Modoc
Zara Gold Edition

Soft Oriental (Incense)

The base notes of these perfumes are not as sweet or heavy as those of classical Orientals, and they are less balsamic and animalic. Their blends of flowers, spices, and amber create a softer but still sensual style. Incense frequently is added for a darker and warmer composition.

Typical masculine Soft Orientals are:

Acqua di Parma Colonia Mirra
Cacharel Loulou
Diptyque l'Eau
Estee Lauder Youth Dew
Jean Patou Sublime 
Kenzo Jungle l'Elephant
Chanel Coco 
Serge Lutens Ambre Sultan
Robert Graham Valour

Woody Oriental

These have prominent wood notes that temper the sweetness of the vanilla, tonka bean, amber, and balsamics. Their accents provide what has been described as a 'luminous' effect, and they are sometimes considered 'artistic.'  They often contain warm sandalwood and rosewood and dry notes of cedarwood, patchouli, agarwood, or vetiver.  These are the most popular Oriental fragrances for men. Aromatic woods are generally included in this category.

Masculine Woody Orientals include:

Acqua di Parma Colonia Mirra, Colonia Oud
Alexandria Alexander the Great, Aromatic Conflict, Himalaya Mountains, Extreme
Alfred Dunhill Desire, Pursuit
Amouage Epic, Beloved, Figment, Interlude Black Iris, Interlude, Overture
Annick Goutal Sables
Ariana & Evans Khalifa
Axe Provocation
Azzaro Duo
Burberry Brit, London
Bvlgari Ambero, Notte, Man, Man Black Orient, Silver LE, Falkar, Gyan, Omnio
C.O. Bigelow Barber Cologne Elixir Black
Cacharel Nemo
Calvin Klein Contradiction, Dark Obsession, Encounter, Euphoria (various), Obsessed, Obsession
Carolina Herrera 212 (various), Insignia
Cartier Declaration, l'Envol de Cartier, Must Cartier, Santos
Cerruti 1881 Black
Chanel Allure (various), Bois des Iles, Egoiste
Chopard pour Homme
Christian Dior Faahrenheit 32, CC Patchouli Imperial, Dune
Crabtree & Evelyn Sandalwood
Creed Bois du Portugal, Himalaya, Santal Imperial
Davidoff Horizon Extreme, Silver Shadow, Brilliant Game, Game Intense, Zino
Dolce & Gabbana By, One Royal Night, Velvet Incenso
Donna Karan Chaos
Dzintars My Version (various), Ridzinieks, Strong Man
Emanuel Ungaro for Him
Ermenegildo Zegna Amber Gold, Indonesian Oud, Roman Wood, Zegna New York
Fendi Theorema Uomo
Floris Patchouli
Fragonard Eau de Hongrie, Zizanie
Geoffrey Beene Grey Flannel
Giorgio Armani Code (various)
Givenchy Gentlemen Only Intense, Pi (various), Very Irresistible
Gucci Envy, Guilty Absolute
Guerlain Habit (various), l'Homme Ideal (various), Samsara
Halston Man Amber
Hugo Boss Bottled Oud, Scent Private Accord
Hermes Eau de Merveilles, Terre d'Hermes
Issey Miyake l'Eau d'Issey Or Encens, Nuit d'Issey Polaris
Jean Paul Gaultier Le Male
Jequiti Malte, Portiolli, Stame, Thiaguinho, Uzon
John Varvatos for Men, Dark Rebel, Oud
Joop! Homme Black King, Homme
Jovan Ginseng NRG
Karl Lagerfeld Classic
Korres Black Pepper Cashmere Lemonwood, Saffron Tobacco
L'Occitane en Provence Eau des Baux
Masaki Maatsushima Aqua Mat Homme, Art Homme
Michael Kors for Men, Extreme Night
Molinard Habanita
Montale Red Vetiver
Mugler A*Men (various), Alien Man, Taste of Fragrance
Nikos for Men
Oleg Cassini for Men
Oriflame Dark Wood, Eternal Man
Paco Rabanne 1 Million, Black XS (various), Ultraviolet
Pecksniff's Cardinal, Tompion
Penhaligon's Hammam Bouquet
Pierre Cardin Centaure Cuir Casaque, Collection Cedre-Ambre, Revelation Energy
Prada Luna Rossa Black, l'Homme Absolu, l'Homme Intense
Ralph Lauren Polo (various)
Remy Latour Cigar Black Oud, Cigar Mystic Scent, Manes
Roger & Gallet l'Homme Vetyver
Royal Copenhagen 1775 Noble, 1775 Valor, 1775 Rival
Santa Maria Novella Opoponax
Tom Ford Noir Extreme
Versace pour Homme, Oud Noir, Versus Uomo
Viktor & Rolf Antidote
Yardley 442 Active
Yves Rocher Ambre Noir, Hoggar
Yves St. Laurent l'Homme Intense, Collection M7, La Nuitde l'Homme, Opium Eau d'Orient
Zara (various) 

Fougere Oriental

This represents the blending of nearly all the major Oriental components (warm, woody, spicy, and sweet accords) along with refreshing aromatic notes of lavender, rosemary, coumarin, and oakmoss.  This group is especially popular with men.

Men's Fougere Oriental perfumes:

Alexandria Ete Sauvage, Greek Horse, Mr. Sillage, Royalty
Alfred Dunhill Desire Black, London
Amouage Jubilation XXV Man
Axe Africa, Anarchy for Him, Dark Temptation, Musk, Phoenix, Signature Rogue
Azzaro Amber Fever, Elixir Bois Precieux, Naughty Leather, Solarissimo Favignana
Burberry Element
Bvlgari Kobraa
Calvin Klein Eternity Flame, Eternity Now, Euphoria Gold
Carolina Herrra 212 (various)
Caron Impact pour un Homme
Cartier Pasha 
Cerruti Si
Chanel pour Monsieur
Chopard Heaven
Christian Dior Sauvage
Claus Porto Musgo Real Agua de Colonia No. 1 Orange Amber
Crabtree & Evelyn Moroccan Myrrh
Dana Canoe
Dzintars Lucky No. 10
Emanuel Ungaro Apparition Homme Intense, Ungaro
Fila for Men
Fiorucci Extreme Sport
Giorgio Armani Attitude, Eau de Nuit, Stronger with You Intensely
Givenchy Play Intense, Xeryus Rouge
Gritti Decimo
Hermes Equipage
Hugo Boss In Motion
Jean Patou 
Jean Paul Gautier Le Male (various), Ultra Male
Jequiti l'Attitude Musique, Prive Homme Fortune, So Voce Fabio Jr. Momentos
Jo Malone Amber & Lavender
Johan Varvatos JVxNJ Crimson
Joop! Homme (various)
Kenneth Cole Mankind Hero
Lacoste Elegance
L'Acqua di Fiori 310, U.Man
Lancome Hypnose
Montale Sliver Aoud
Mugler A*Men (various)
Nikos Sculpture
Oleg Cassini
Oriflame Full Moon, Possess Man
Penhaligon's Agarbathi
Pierre Cardin Bleu Marine
Pino Silvestre Deep Charisma
Rasasi Al Wisam Day
Rochas l'Homme, Monsieur Rochas
Salvatore Ferragamo Acqua Essenziale Blu
Swank Jade East
Thera Cosmeticos (various)
Versace Dreamer
Yves St. Laurent Jazz Prestige, La Nuit, La Nuit Eau Electrique
Zara (various)

Spicy Oriental

The term Oriental applies especially well to this group, since they often have multiple strong, balanced ingredients rather than a specific or signature accord. Hot, sensual, and with a typical zesty and adventuresome spirit, they are a favorite with both genders, especially in the cold winter season. Popular notes include cinnamon, clove, pink pepper, mace, thyme, and nutmeg, and common floral additions are mandarin, bergamot, and orchid, which give the perfume an added Eastern flavor. Amber sometimes is added for more warmth. Men seem to prefer Spicy Orientals that also mix vanilla and resins. This group is has remained popular and less changed than some of the others.

Popular men's products:

Acqua di Parma Colonia Quercia
Alexandria La Dolce Vita, Ovation
Alfred Dunhill Moroccan Amber
Amouage Lyric, Fate
Aramis Classic Reserve, Havana, JHL
Azzaro Decibel
Boucheron Homme Fraicheur 2008, Jaipur
Burberry Brit New Year, London
Bvlgari Man in Black Essence, Le Gemme Yasep
C.O. Bigelow Barber Cologne Elixir, Bay Rum
Calvin Klein Heat, One Shock, Eternity, Obsessed
Carolina Herrera Bad Boy, CH Men, CH Men Grand Tour
Cartier Must, Santos Concentree
Cerruti 1881 Signature
Chanel pour Monsieur Concentree
Christian Dior Fahrenheit, Sauvage
Claus Porto Real Black Edition
Dana English Leather Spiced
Davidoff Hot Water, Hot Water Night
Dolce & Gabbana ll La Force, The One Collector, One Mysterious Night
Emanuel Ungaro pour l'Homme II, Power, U Fever
Ermenegildo Zegna (various)
Floris Palm Springs for Spencer Hart
Fragonard Desert
Giorgio Armani Code (various), Attitude Extreme, Gio 2015
Givenchy Gentlemen Only Absolute
Gucci Made to Measure
Hugo Boss Soul, Scent Absolute, Dark Blue, Red
Jequiti Champs Velocite
Jovan Satisfaction
Karl Lagerfeld Homme, KL, Photo
Korres Saffron Amber Agarwood Cardamom
L'Occitane en Provence Au Bresil - Cumaru
Lacoste Timeless
Maurer & Wirtz Tabac Fire Power
Narciso Rodriguez Intense
Nikos Sculpture Homme God's Night
Oriflame Be the Wild Legend, ID Player, Intense Embrace Him, Manful, Signature Heritage, Voyager
Paco Rabanne Pure XS Night
Panama 1924 Sport, 2.0
Paul Sebastian Silver, Kinetic
Pecksniff's Charismatic
Penhaligon's Endymion, LP No. 9, Uncompromising Sohan
Pierre Cardin Revelation
Rasasi Daarej, Tasmeem
Roja Enigma, Madison
Royal Copenhagen 1775 Rival, Noble
Shulton Old Spice Original
Viktor & Rolf Spicebomb Extreme
Xerjoff Coffee Break Golden Dallah, Shooting Stars Kobe
Yardley Bond Street, Cougar
Yves St. Laurent Body Kouros, Opium (various)
Zara (various)

(Vanilla Oriental)

With warm gourmand characters, this group blends already sweet perfumes built on Oriental notes (the usual woods, flowers, spices, and resins) with other sweet components, such as caramel, vanilla, chocolate, almond, honey, and burnt sugar. Products of this type is especially popular among women, but several of them are aimed at men:

Axe Provoke
Carolina Herrera 212 VIP
Ermenegildo Zegna Strength
Frederic Malle Monsieur
Giorgio Armani Night
Guerlain l'Initial
Inessance Terre d'Evasion
Jacques Battini De l'Ambre Shady
Jean Paul Gaultier Kokorico by Night
John Varvatos Rock Volume 1
Joop! Wow!
Mugler A*Men Pure Havane, Angel Glamorama
Oriflame S8 Night
Remy Latour Cigar Vanilla Tonka
Ralph Lauren Ralph Hot
Ted Lapidus Intenso
Thera Cosmeticos Amatus
Yves St. Laurent Black Opium Storm Illusion 

(Fresh Oriental)

Often considered a part of the Floral Oriental family, this newer group has a lighter interpretation, with citrus oils included to brighten and lift the aroma, making them more applicable to daytime use while still having an underlying exotic beauty.  Examples include:

10 Corso Como Uomo
Acqua di Parma Colonia Mirra
Baldessarini Black
Bvlgari Le Gemme Garanat, Man Black
Davidoff Cool Water Intense
Kenzo Aqua Kenzo Neo
Lacoste Timeless
Paco Rabanne 1 Million, Invictus Legend, Pure XS 
Prada Luna Rossa Sport
Rasasi La Yuqawam Ambergris Showers, Relation, Truly, Xtraordinaire Musky
Roja Madison
Royal Copenhagen 1775 Valor
Zara Amber, Blue Spirit, CC Sydney, Denim Couture Red, Weekend Hoodie, Tobacco Intense Dark

(Aromatic Oriental)

This is generally deemed a part of the Floral Oriental collection but is thought to be significantly separate by a few. The fragrances typically possess a very intensive grassy-spicy tone provided by sage, rosemary, cumin, lavender, and other plants, which often is combined with uplifting citrus notes.  They seem to be especially popular with men.  Included in this group are:

Abercrombie & Fitch First Instinct
Bvlgari Le Gemme Opalon, Man Black Orient
Chanel Allure Sport
Chopard 1000 Miglia Chrono
Giorgio Armani Code A-List
Hugo Boss The Scent
Jean Paul Gaultier Le Male, Le Male Aviator
Karl Lagerfled Bois de Cedre
Lacoste Land
Mugler Alien Man
Panama 1924 Espresso Napoletano
Rasasi Power Plus
Roja Risque
Taylor of Old Bond Street Platinum
Xerjoff Coffee Break Golden Moka
Zara C4shmer4n, For Him


Oriental Perfume Name/Concept Controversy

Many experts consider the term 'Oriental' to be misleading and vague or worse.  Although there are old and sophisticated fragrance traditions in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East, the typical modern perfume of this type has little in common with their classical forms.  Amouage Gold, a well-known modern fragrance from the company founded by the Omani royal family, does exploit and typify the cliché, with a signature powdery-mossy accord built around Omani rose and frankincense. But the Oriental family of French perfumery initially grew as part of the stereotypical orientalist Western arts movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries, and like the widely varying philosophies of the artists of that time, the word came to mean many things, often seemingly conflicting. This confusing state has been worsened by the necessity of many of the fragrances being constantly reformulated to keep them in compliance with various governmental regulations.

'Oriental' possibly was used at first to describe perfumes actually made with ingredients from or associated with the Orient, especially the Middle East, and subsequently ingredients that approximated or suggested those 'warm' scents. The first product to use the term in print was Guerlain Shalimar, launched in 1925 in Paris at the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts and described as Oriental "because its suave gourmand notes recall the sweet balsams of the lands of the One Thousand and One Nights." It was said to have been inspired by a maharaja visiting Paris who told Jacques and Raymond Guerlain the story of the gardens of Shalimar, which sheltered the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and his Persian wife Mumtaz Mahal, for whom he built the Taj Mahal.

Outside the perfume world, 'Oriental' is a word not only reflecting Western fantasies, but also suggesting 19th century and early 20th century European colonialism. In his book Orientalism, Edward Said described it as "a sign of European-Atlantic power of the Orient" and an artificially constructed understanding of what Westerners believed the Orient to be: an exotic, mysterious, and culturally opposite place from the West. The word was used to simultaneously fetishize and degrade Eastern cultures thought to be less sophisticated or 'advanced' than Western ones, and it painted a culturally homogenous image of a vast group of people whose only true similarity was that they were non-European. More recently, it has become clear that when the term is applied to people, it is seen as politically incorrect and insensitive. In 2016 President Obama signed a bill eliminating all uses of the term Oriental from federal law. Grace Meng, a member of Congress from New York who sponsored the bill, called the term "outdated" and "offensive." She said, "Many Americans may not be aware that the word 'Oriental' is derogatory. But it is an insulting term that needed to be removed from the books."

So is the use of the term Oriental a problem in perfumery?  Dr. Amy Hanser, Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of British Columbia, says in somewhat typical sociological language, "It points to the ways in which we are sensitive to (negatively) racializing language when applied to people, but we might fail to recognize racializing discourse that is not directly applied to human bodies. But the idea of a perfume being an 'Oriental' fragrance might indeed be drawing upon stereotypes about a region (and its people) that make the term problematic when applied to people."  

To some it seems bizarre that it still is being used to describe fragrances.  Alexa Nishimoto, a freelance fashion designer with the Japanese American Museum in Los Angeles, says, "It feels like [brands] attempt to use one universal word to convey all Asian cultures, which is reductive to those who know that the nuances of each culture can be vastly different and don't fall under just one umbrella term."  Dana El Masri, an independent perfumer, agrees: "[The term Oriental] is outdated and unnecessary. It also doesn't say much about the fragrance family and has become more of a reference to a 'spice' structure that was created in the 1920s than anything else. It is too broad a reference and perpetuates a typically Western/Occidental point of view."

But to traditional perfumers and perfume aficionados, it remains an 'official' classification. Says Marian Bendeth, a fragrance expert and perfumery owner, "It's where it originates, and it's a beautiful thing and certainly helps me because I deal with classifications all the time." She sees the term not as cultural but as geographical, denoting the origin of certain commonly-used fragrance notes.

The non-profit Institute for Art and Olfaction (IAO) refrains from using Oriental as a perfume classification, referring to it only if absolutely necessary as "the category most commonly known as Oriental, which needs renaming." One member of its board of directors, Julianne Lee, says, "I understand that the term is not one that is easy to sidestep for those in the fragrance community as so-called 'Oriental' perfumes are crucial to perfume history. However, I do find it lazy and harmful terminology." El Masri has suggested breaking down the single fragrance family into subfamilies based on geographical regions: "There are huge differences between a fragrance created in Malaysia by Malay people and a Japanese one, obviously, so why not classify it as such?"  But many modern perfumes that have evolved from those created a century ago do not fit into geographical definitions at all, which has prompted some experts to propose coining terms such as 'ambery' that describe the actual olfactory notes, although there is wide disagreement about how this could be accomplished. Lee has noted that in terms of primary olfactory notes, so-called Oriental fragrances can generally be divided into two categories: those that incorporate an 'ambreine' accord (bergamot, vanilla, rose) and those that use a 'mellis' ('honey-sweet' or 'pleasant') accord (benzoin, eugenol, lily-of-the-valley, spices), but she also recognizes that many contemporary Oriental scents have branched out and mutated so much that they may not even warrant use of the Oriental label or accord labels at all. "Oftentimes, they are mere attempts at populating the 'Oriental' category, clearly visible from the marketing narrative and strategy."

So the controversy continues.

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 06-17-2020, 09:25 AM
#42
User Info
Sandalwood

Sandalwood is a classic fragrance. It has an Oriental woody-floral odor profile, creamy, smooth, soft, and sensual. As a single fragrance, sandalwood is sweet, green, and nutty in its top aspects and warm and rich in later phases. It blends well with almost all oils, and it pairs well with floral or other wood scents such as violet, rose, orange blossom, jasmine, ylang ylang, cypress, patchouli, and oakmoss. It frequently is combined with musk, amber, tea, cumin, and spices such as cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, fennel, pepper, and clove. It complements and balances frankincense and myrrh especially well. Like vetiver and amber, it is used primarily as a base note for perfumes in the Oriental, Woody, Fougère, and Chypre families. It lacks the sharpness of rosewood, cedarwood, and vetiver, and to some noses it is perceived as animalic. At higher concentrations, sandalwood can overpower other components of a composition, but at lower levels it adds softness, fullness, and roundness, as well as acting as a fixative for more volatile head note ingredients, enhancing their longevity. 
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Initially during the Georgian era of perfumery (ca. 1714-1835), sandalwood was considered to be a masculine scent, but in 1796 the perfumer James Floris developed Staphanotis, a feminine fragrance that blended base notes of sandalwood and musk with orange blossom, staphanotis, and lily of the valley. Subsequently sandalwood has become much more popular in feminine perfumes, used in the base of almost half of them produced since that time.

The name comes from the Sanskrit chandanam (also meaning 'soothing') or sandanam in Tamil. Sandalwood is a medium-sized parasitic evergreen tree (getting nutrients from other trees in its early stages) with slender drooping branches and brown or red bark. The leaves are 3-4 cm long and elliptic, and the small unscented flowers are numerous and pale straw to brownish-purple. The tree produces fruit, and birds disperse its seeds. It grows relatively slowly and can live up to 100 years. The wood is hard and fine-grained, with the sapwood pale green or white and odorless and the heartwood yellowish-brown and strongly scented. The concentration of fragrant oil increases with the tree's age, and unlike many other aromatic woods, it retains its fragrance for decades if stored properly.
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Indian sandalwood (Santalum album, sometimes called 'East Indian sandalwood' since colonial times) is thought to be indigenous to southern India and East Timor and introduced to Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China, Australia, Hawaii, and other Pacific islands. It belongs to the family of woods that includes rosewood, cedar, and cinnamon tree. Other Santalum species are native to many other regions. The highest quality tree has been Mysore white sandalwood from southern India and Tamil Nadu, now reduced almost to extinction by overharvesting. At one time 70-90% of the world's sandalwood oil production was in India, but the majority now comes from Australia. All sandalwood trees in India, Pakistan, and Nepal now are government-owned, but despite some measures of government protection, illegal logging and trading continue on a large scale (partly due to law enforcement corruption), as does associated clandestine dilution, which makes the oil less desirable.
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Native Australian sandalwood (S. spicatum), a different species with a sharper, more resinous, and earthy but still quite pleasant odor, has replaced S. album for most perfumery. Production of Australian oil peaked in 2009 and has continued at significant levels. However, with increasing use of synthetic sandalwood substitutes in perfumery and personal care products, a growing proportion of Australia's natural oil production has been diverted to the chewing tobacco industry. 
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Overall, there are at least 25 species in the genus Santalum. New Caledonian sandalwood (S. austrocaledonicum), growing on that archipelago and on Vanuatu, produces a very high-quality oil that is quite similar to the Indian oil. Species grown in Hawaii also have been of high quality and were actively exploited in the late 18th and early 19th centuries until the tree supply finally dwindled. Others that have been used intermittently include red sandalwood, false sandalwood, camwood, and bastard sandalwood. Typically they lose their aroma more quickly than the Indian or Australian species. African sandalwood and the so-called 'American sandalwood' or sea torchwood have nothing in common botanically with S. album, and their oils are chemically quite different; but they are several times cheaper than Santalum species, and although their oils differ considerably in smell for most people, they are similar enough to have been used, sometimes surreptitiously, in products called 'sandalwood,' especially niche products.
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Sandalwood essential oil is most often obtained from the wood through steam distillation. It can also be extracted less efficiently through water distillation, solvent extraction, and vacuum co-distillation. Because it can regenerate from the stump, the tree was cut down for harvesting in the past, but now it more often is completely uprooted during the rainy season. Consequently the oil can be distilled from all the wood, including the trunk, branches, and roots, in order maximize profit. The wood is ground to powder and soaked in water for about 48 hours before distillation. The four-step steam-distillation process (boiling, steaming, condensation, and separation) takes 18-36 hours to complete, longer than nearly all other essential oils. 
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In the past, only trees older than 40-80 years and at full maturity, with the highest concentration of fragrance in the heartwood, were used for oil, but today the average age of trees commercially harvested is 8-16 years (or a minimum of 15 years in Australia). The pale gold-brown, moderately viscous oil retains fragrance for a long time when stored. The source of the fragrance is santalol, in its alpha and beta isomers. Australian sandalwood oil contains 35-40% santalol, while Indian sandalwood has had 70-90%, with the superior Mysore type having a minimum of 90%. Eugenols provide a minor additional 'smoke-dried' aspect, and carbonyl compounds add flowery undertones. The overall sandalwood oil composition depends on the species, region grown, soil location, age of tree, and possibly the season of harvest and extraction process, and thus there can be significant variability.
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The S. album species population is now recognized as 'vulnerable,' and since 2004 Indian sandalwood has been listed on the IUCN Red List. Other than the oil produced by its own governmental growers, India has banned extraction of oil and export of sandalwood materials. Efforts are underway internationally to save the trees from extinction and regenerate S. album production. In addition to the subsidized government farming in the Indian state of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, Indian sandalwood, including the Mysore type, now is grown on large plantations in western Australia alongside the indigenous Australian variety. With newer techniques of irrigation and fertilization, tree growth has been boosted so that a 15-year-old tree has the same oil levels as a 30-year-old tree did in the past. Australian producers in Kununurra are increasingly planting Indian trees, but whether establishment and growth of new plantations there can significantly restore the groves as a source of oil remains to be seen.

With decreasing stocks of Mysore and other Indian sandalwood, perfumers have had to reformulate their perfume products, some of which - especially the most renowned - were purported at one time to contain up to 40% natural sandalwood. Scientists have tried unsuccessfully for decades to develop protocols for the commercial synthesis of organic sandalwood oil, but efforts continue with new developments in biotechnology that raise hopes for the future. Companies also have been trying to find synthetic substitutes that imitate the chemical structure and scent of the natural oil. The first substitute molecule was discovered in Germany in 1947, with subsequent further evolution, including development of Santalidol in the Soviet Union. Santalidol, a mixture of several substances with similar structures, was mass produced commercially beginning in 1956. Since then, variations of it having somewhat differing ingredient ratios and smells have been marketed, with Sandalore and Bagdanol being the most common by the 1970s, as use of natural sandalwood oil began to decrease. The alternative probably best-known historically is Sandenol, whose chemical structure is most closely related to the santalol isomers and which was said to have an aroma quite similar to that of the natural oil. Among other widely used alternates are Javanol, Polysantol, Firsantol, Levosandol, Ebanol, Fleursandol, and HomoPolysantol. Javanol, Ebanol, Sandela, Santaliff, and Santalore have been claimed by their users to be the strongest and most true to natural sandalwood, but there is disagreement, and none can exactly match the complexity and richness of true sandalwood. Due to its unique technical properties (lasting power, strength, diffusivity, and ability to mix well with other compounds), Javanol from  Givaudan has become the favorite among modern perfumers. A major advantage of synthetic oils over the natural form is that they provide consistency of composition and quality from batch to batch.  

The documented use of sandalwood goes back about 4000 years to India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.  Ramayana, an Indian epic poem written in the 4th century BCE, first mentions the ancient burning of sandalwood slivers as incense. When sandalwood was abundant, especially in the 15th to 17th centuries, many temples and other structures were built with its timber, as were sculptures and furniture. In Egypt, it was an embalming ingredient and was believed to release the souls of the dead in reincarnation. It has been highly prized for wood carving, including creation of religious icons, rosaries, fans, sewing boxes, and toys, and this still is done using wood from trimmings and immature trees killed by disease. Sandalwood has been used in solid perfumes for centuries by Arab perfumers. In the 18th century it became a popular ingredient in European perfumes and cosmetics, and it also was used then to scent Spanish Córdoban leather.
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Sandalwood oil and wood have been a part of many different religious practices, including Hinduism, Sufism, Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Shamanism, and Taoism. The wood of the tree is powdered and made into a paste that is integral to many rituals and ceremonies, and it is used to decorate icons and altars. The paste and oil (applied to the forehead, neck, or chest) and the smoke from burning sandalwood incense have been thought to calm and focus the mind for meditation and prayer. Indian paintings show images of snakes curling around sandalwood trees, representing legends in which the tree is said to release such a beautiful scent that serpents are charmed by it.
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The essential oil is used in aromatherapy for its stress-reducing, calming, and soothing properties, and it is considered to be an aphrodisiac, especially in massage oil. It is a natural astringent, firming and toning the skin. It has been used for centuries in Chinese and Indian Ayurvedic medicine as an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, hypotensive, and sedative. Sandalwood is claimed to be beneficial for rheumatism and gout, and it may have benefits for treating anxiety and depression and even cancers. Synthetic sandalwoods have been shown to stimulate skin OR2AT3 receptors, which may promote wound healing and scalp hair growth.

Aboriginal Australians eat sandalwood seed kernels, nuts, and fruit, and early European settlers there used the fruit in making jams, chutneys, and pies. Modern chefs have experimented with the nut as a substitute for macadamia, almond, and hazelnut, especially in Southeast Asian-style cuisine. The oil and some of the synthetic sandalwood analogues are used as a flavoring agent in candy, ice cream, baked goods, puddings, gelatin, and beverages. Due to its preservative and antiseptic properties, sandalwood often is included in soaps, other beauty products, candles, air fresheners, and industrial products. Finally, because of its low fluorescence and optimal refractive index, sandalwood oil has been used as an immersion oil for microscopy. There has not been extensive research conducted on the safety of sandalwood oil, but because there have not been any significant adverse effects documented in the scientific literature, it generally is considered quite safe and continues to be used commonly.

Many sandalwood perfume products have 'sandalwood,' 'sandalo,' or 'santal' in their names and can be identified easily. Other scents without those words in their names but with significant a sandalwood presence and usually designated as masculine include the following:

Aesop Marrakech Intense
Amouage Interlude, Epic, Memoir
Aramis Havana
Balenciaga Eau
Blanche Byredo Blanche
Burberry Mr. Burberry
By Killian Sacred Wood
Calvin Klein Liquid Gold Euphoria, Contradiction
Cartier Declaration d'un Soir
Caswell Massey Tricorn
Chanel Egoiste, Bleu
Christian Dior Leather Oud, Patchouli Imperial, Vetiver
Comme des Garcons Concrete, Wonderwood
Creed Himalaya, Bois du Portugal, Silver Mountain Water
D.R. Harris Marlborough
Davidoff Cool Water
Dior Fahrenheit
Diptyque Tam Dao
Dolce & Gabbana D&G
Donna Karan Chaos
Dunhill 51.3 N
Fabi per Lui
Fragonard Zizanie
Fulton & Roark Shackleford
Gucci Envy, Rush
Guerlain Habit Rouge, l'Eau Boisee, l'Instant, Heritage, Arsene Lupin Voyou
Guy Laroche Drakka Noir
Hermes Bel Ami
Histoire de Parfums 1725 Casanova
Jean Paul Gaultier Le Male
Jill Sander Man III
L'Acqua di Fiori Tennis
Laurent Mazzone Black Oud
Le Cherche Midi
Lush Smuggler's Soul
Maître Parfumeur et Gantier Grain de Plaisir
Maurer & Wirtz Marrakech Tale
Oscar de la Renta pour Lui
Pal Zileri Sartoriale
Penhaligon's Hammam Bouquet
Prada l'Homme
Profumum Roma Olibanum
Proraso Red
Revillon pour Homme
Rochas Macassar
Rosendo Mateu No. 1, No. 6
Scorpio Gold
Shaik Gold
Stetson Preferred Stock, Caliber
Tom Ford Exxtreme, Noir
Tom Frank Black 1
Valentino Noir Absolu
Van Heusen
Versace Black Jeans
Xerjoff Richwood
Yves St. Laurent Jazz
Zadig & Voltaire This is Him
Zara For Him 2018, No Night

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 06-23-2020, 09:54 AM
#43
User Info
Fragrance Classification and Fragrance Wheels


In perfumery there have been four main fragrance categories traditionally: Fresh, Floral, Oriental, and Woody.  Within these four main groups fall generally accepted families; and beyond these are numerous combinations of notes that blur the lines of distinction.  

The original classification of fragrances, which emerged around 1900, consisted of 7 entities:

•Single floral: dominated by a scent from one particular flower, in French called a soliflore.
•Floral bouquet: containing a combination of several flowers in a scent. 
•Ambery or oriental: sweet, spicy, and exotic, featuring vanilla and animal scents together with flowers, woods, and spices such as cardamom and clove, sometimes enhanced by camphoraceous oils and incense resins. 
•Woody: dominated by wood scents, typically of sandalwood, oak, and cedar. Patchouli is commonly found in these perfumes. 
•Leather: featuring the scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in the middle or base notes and suggesting leather items. 
•Chypre: fragrances built on an accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum.  Named after a perfume by Francois Coty.
•Fougère: having a base of lavender, coumarin, and oakmoss and characterized by a sharp herbaceous and woody scent. 

Since 1945, due to technological advances in compound design and synthesis and to style evolution, additional categories of scents have emerged:
•Bright floral: combining the traditional Single floral and floral bouquet categories. 
•Green: a lighter and more modern interpretation of the chypre type. 
•Oceanic/Aquatic/Ozone: the newest category, appearing in 1991, a clean, modern smell invoking the sea or the smell of rain, and leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes. 
•Citrus or Fruity: a very old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes due to the low tenacity of natural citrus scents such as lemon, orange, bergamot, grapefruit, and mandarin. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of stable primarily citrus fragrances. 
•Gourmand: scents with "edible" or "dessert"-like qualities, often containing notes like vanilla and tonka bean, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. 

However, there is not a complete consensus, and according to some experts, there should be eight major families: four feminine ones (Chypre, Floral, feminine Citrus, and feminine Oriental) and four masculine ones (Aromatic, Woody, masculine Citrus, and masculine Oriental).


Fragrance Wheel

The Fragrance wheel (or aroma wheel, fragrance circle, perfume wheel) is a relatively new classification method that is widely used in the fragrance industry. It is represented by a round diagram.  The method was first used in 1949 by Austrian perfumer Paul Jellinek and was titled the Odor Effects Diagram:

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Subsequently U. Harder at Harman & Reimer and others developed several variations of the Fragrance Circle.  And in 1983 Michael Edwards, a consultant in the perfume industry, designed his own scheme of fragrance classification after being inspired by a fragrance seminar by Firmenich. Since its creation, Edwards' wheel has been modified several times, and it is the most widely used model.  

The wheel scheme first was created in order to simplify fragrance classification and naming on a logical basis, as well as to show the relationships between individual classes, based upon odor similarities and differences, which previous classifications had overlooked.  

The five standard families on most wheels now consist of Floral, Oriental, Woody, Fougère, and Fresh, with the first four families being the more "classic" ones, while the Fresh category consists of newer, bright and clean-smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived due to improvements in fragrance technology.  With the exception of the Fougères, each of the families is in turn usually divided into three sub-groups and arranged around a wheel:

1. Floral 

 1.Floral - notes of fresh-cut flowers
 2.Soft Floral - aldehydes and powdery notes
 3.Floral Oriental - main notes of orange blossom and sweet spices

2. Oriental  

 1.Soft Oriental - incense and amber 
 2.Oriental - vanilla and oriental resins such as frankincense 
 3.Woody Oriental - sandalwood and patchouli
 
3. Woody  

 1.Woods (added 2008) - aromatic woods and vetiver
 2.Mossy Woods - oakmoss and amber
 3.Dry Woods - dry woods and leather
 4. Fresh  

 1.Citrus - bergamot and citrus oils
 2.Green - galbanum and green notes 
 3.Water (Oceanic/Aquatic) - marine and aquatic notes
(4.Fruity - added 2008) - berries and other non-citrus fruits 
 5. Aromatic/Fougère 


The idea is that the wheel represents the circular continuum of fragrances which humans can perceive, with each group blending into and overlapping with its two neighbors, with implied common olfactory characteristics. For instance Floral Oriental scents consist of a mingling of florals with sweet and spicy notes, while the adjacent Soft Oriental group frequently includes a slight flowery touch.

Until recently, the Fougère family was placed at the center of the wheel since it takes fragrance elements from the other four families, citrus from the Fresh, oakmoss and woods from Woody, coumarin and incense from Oriental, and lavender from Floral.  This is shown in the 1983 wheel: 

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With a further modification in 2010, the Aromatics/Fougère group was moved to a space between Dry Woods and Citrus to synchronize the chart with newer studies of smell perception, and in some charts it actually is included under the Woody class.  The 2010 Edwards chart:

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In order to differentiate further, some experts have divided each of a family's subclasses in turn into Fresh, Crisp, Classical, or Rich compositions, while others have simply divided a subclass further into the individual scents themselves.

As a class, Chypres is more difficult to place since it usually would be located under parts of the Oriental and Woody families. For instance, Guerlain Mitsouko, which is classically identified as a Chypre, would be placed under Mossy Woods, but Hermès Rouge, a Chypre with a more floral character, would be put under Floral Oriental.  Attempts have been made to incorporate the Chypres into a chart scheme, such as that of the Lebermuth Company, which sets it between the Fougères and the Camphoraceous (eucalyptus, rosemary, and pine), in addition to showing the presumed relationships of individual scents:

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Another wheel example is that of the Chemia Corporation, which divides fragrances into different groups based upon their somewhat subjective predominant character, including "food-like" ones, as shown here:

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Still another chart which differentiates more is the Atelier wheel:

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And the Drom Fragrance Circle further subjectively aligns scents with gender:

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A more recent chart, outlining aroma-chemical relationships rather than smell perceptions, is the non-circular Givaudan Scent Ingredients Map:

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And finally, some constructs attempt to express the recently well-described connection and cross-sensory interrelationship between the senses of smell and taste, such as the Aromaster chart:

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Despite these attempts at classification, individual perfume products often remain difficult to characterize objectively.  Fragrances may share notes, accords, or other characteristics, but each perfume is an individual entity with unique notes.  Because of this uniqueness, a perfume can be seen to fall into more than one category of fragrance, especially since it will have a different smell on one person than on someone else and will vary in its overall personality with body chemistry changes and with the passage of time.

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 06-26-2020, 09:31 AM
#44
User Info
Benzoin

Benzoin, commonly called storax, gum benzoin, or gum benjamin, is a balsamic oleoresin (a mixture of resin and essential oils) from the Styrax tree.  Styrax (also called storax or snowbell) is a genus of around 130 species of shrubs or trees in the family Styracaceae and is native to temperate-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The majority of trees are in Eastern and Southeastern Asia (especially Sumatra, Java, and Thailand), but they also are found now in parts of southeastern North America and in South America, with a single species in the Mediterranean. The trees have deciduous or evergreen, alternate, ovate leaves and white flowers. The fruit is an oblong dry, smooth drupe (stone fruit).
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Benzoin resin is harvested like frankincense and myrrh once the trees are at least 7-10 years old. The hill tribe farmers climb to a height of 10 meters using rope ladders and make V-shaped incisions in the bark, and after several weeks the exudate forms tear-shaped lumps that look like caramel toffee. The tears are cleaned, sorted, and graded into quality groups. The first 3 years of a tree's life produce the best resin. Production continues for 10-12 years, after which the tree is cut down and the residual gum is scraped from the bark. Commonly used are the resins of the species S. tonkinensis, S. benzoin, and S. benzoides. Benzoin should not be confused with the balsam of the same name, which comes from the Hamamelidaceae family.
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Benzoin resin can be distilled, but most often it is solvent-extracted with alcohol from the resin. This produces are dark brown solid mass which is diluted with dipropylene glycol to varying ratios to give resinoids of differing viscosity. For perfumery it is further diluted in ethanol (to about 30% alcohol).  

Most of the resin is used by the cosmetic and food industries. It has a sweet, light, nutty odor sometimes described as smelling like root beer, grape juice, or vanilla, with chocolate and almond-cherry undertones. In perfumery, it most often is used as a base note. It also has excellent fixative properties, especially for fragrance middle notes. 

There are two main types of benzoin resin. Benzoin Sumatra, from S. benzoin primarily, with some from S. paralleoneurus, comes predominantly from Java and Sumatra. It contains cinnamic acid and has a smoky, woody, and incense aroma and is mostly used in pharmaceutical preparations. Its scent composition is cinnamic acid 20%, benzoic acid 18%, and vanillin 1%. 
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Benzoin Siam, obtained from S. tonkinensis, is found across the highlands of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. It is mainly used for perfumery and food flavoring and has a sweet-balsamic aroma with a distinct note of vanilla. The Laotian resin is thought to be the best quality, with a velvety finish and pronounced fruity note. The chief constituent is benzoic acid 32%, with vanillin 2% but no cinnamic acid.
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Benzoin gives a luminous 'body' to perfumes. Highly versatile, benzoin is frequently used in amber and spicy Oriental fragrances and also complements citrus, woods (cypress, juniper, cedarwood, sandalwood, laurel), and florals (jasmine, lavender, rose, geranium). It mixes well with frankincense, myrrh, vetiver, and patchouli, and it has a special affinity for other sweet and rich notes like vanilla, leather, and tonka bean. It is used sparingly since its richness easily can overwhelm other ingredients. Says perfumer Alienor Massenet, "Benzoin is as suave as vanilla, and has a touch of cinnamon to it. I use it for feminine and masculine fragrances: it gives an 'openness' and sensuality to fragrances."
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The name probably is derived from the Arabic lubān jāwī (meaning 'Javan frankincense,' as it was called in the 14th century). At times it has colloquially been called benjamin or benjoin. Records from ancient Egypt indicate that benzoin was mixed with other aromatic resins like pine, juniper, cypress, galbanum, and labdanum to create an aromatic powder that dancers applied to their heads, and it was used in embalming and for incense. Herodotus of Halicarnassus indicates the in the 5th century BC different kinds of storax were traded. 

There is some uncertainty about exactly which resins old written sources mention. Turkish sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), an unrelated tree in the family Altingiaceae, produces a similar resin now traded as storax or Levant storax, as do other sweetgums. Turkish sweetgum occurs only in a small area of southwest Turkey, not in the Levant at all. Presumably some of the 'storax resin' of ancient Greek and Roman sources was this sweetgum rather than a Styrax, although genuine Styrax resin (probably mainly from S. officinalis) was imported from the Near East by Phoenician merchants. Since the Middle Ages, Southeast Asian benzoin resins became increasingly available, and today there is very little international trade in S. officinalis and Turkish sweetgum resins. 

In medicine benzoin has been used for millenia for arthritis and rheumatism, spasms, asthma, bronchitis and coughing (as a mild expectorant), sore throat and laryngitis, eczema and chapped skin, cuts, and bruises, and stress. Avicenna discusses S. officinalis in his Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, indicating that the resin, mixed with other antibiotic substances and hardening material, makes a good dental restorative material. Benzoin resin is a component of the 'Theriaca Andromachi Senioris,' a Venic treacle recipe in the 1686 d'Amsterdammer Apotheek. It acts as a styptic, stopping minor bleeding, and an antiseptic; the antibiotic activity seems to be due mainly to benzoic acid and benzoic acid esters. Tincture of benzoin (also called friar's balsam), which is the resin dissolved in alcohol (approximately 20% resin and 80% alcohol), was invented around 1790 by Joshua Ward and was used in 19th century European antiseptic and cleaning preparations. It is commonly used now in first aid for small injuries, since it acts as a disinfectant and local anesthetic and may promote healing. The tincture also is a topical adhesive agent that is used to provide tackiness and enhance the sticking properties of medical tape, especially 'butterfly' bandages and tape over sutures (Steri-Strips). This is particularly helpful for facial areas. It has also been used as a preoperative antiseptic for wound preparation. Benzoin is used commonly in veterinary medicine.

After being blended with other oils, benzoin can be used to treat skin irritations such as itchiness, dryness, and inflammation. However, it can cause contact dermatitis, primarily due to its benzyl benzoate. There has been little modern research on the medical properties or safety of the resin.

In aromatherapy, although it is thought to be a mild stimulant, benzoin has a calming and grounding effect, providing a 'padded zone' between the user and external events. It is said to 'heal the wounds of the soul.'

Most benzoin is used in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Indonesia, India, and the horn of Africa, where it is burned for fragrance on charcoal grills. In the Middle East, an incense of scented wood chips called Bakhoor contains benzoin. Bakhoor is used on coal fires as an Arab outdoor air freshener. It is also used as incense in Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, and Greek Christian churches. The incense is mentioned in the Book of Exodus. Styrax was incorporated into Japanese, Indian, and Chinese incense, as well as in the European Papier d'Arménie, a paper strip burned indoors and still sold in small booklets. Although toxic benzene and formaldehyde are produced when Styrax incense is burned, a strip of Papier d'Arménie burned every 2-3 days produces less of them than do many modern synthetic air fresheners. Styrax resin from southern Arabian species was burned in fields during frankincense harvesting because it was thought to drive away poisonous snakes. 

Several species of Styrax are popular as ornamental trees in parks and gardens. The wood of larger species is suitable for carving and handicrafts; wood of S. japonicus ('egonoki') is used to build Japanese bowed musical instruments. 

The resin is used as a flavoring in foods (beverages, baked goods, chewing gum, frozen dairy, gelatins, puddings, soft candy) and medicines. Benzoin resin and its derivatives also are used in tobacco cigarettes as flavoring agents and to increase transmucosal nicotine absorption. It is used for scenting toothpastes, soaps, and other personal care products.

The chemical benzoin (2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone) actually is not found in benzoin resin in measurable quantities at all. The resin does contain small amounts of the hydrocarbon styrene, named for the unrelated Levant storax from which it was first isolated. Industrially produced styrene is now used to make polystyrene plastics, including Styrofoam.

Synthetic chemicals are replacing real benzoin resin in some perfume products and are said to blend well with other fragrance materials. Marketed by several companies, they typically are called 'benzoin resin replacer.'

Perfume products for men with significant benzoin include:

Acqua di Parma Colonia Intensa
Annick Goutal Ambre Fetiche
Aramis JHL
Ashley Oud
Azzaro Elixir, Elixir Bois Precieux, Onyx
Baldessarini
Balenciaga Cristobal
Battistoni Marte Evolution
Boucheron Jaipur 
Bvlgari Man (various), Aqva Atlantiqve
By Kilian Back to Black
Carolina Herrera Men Prive
Cesare Paciotti Oriental Supreme
Chanel Allure
Chris Adams MP 
Christian Dior Feve Delicieuse
Comme des Garcons
Davidoff Silver Shadow, Relax, Hot Water
Diesel Only the Brave Tattoo
Diptyque Benjoin Boheme, Volutes
Elemi Incense with a Twist of Lemon
Francis Kurkdjian Oud Satin Mood, Grand Soir, Absolue pour le Soir
Franck Olivier Red
Giorgio Armani Myrrhe Imperiale, Code Absolu Gold
Giorgio Beverly Hills VIP Special Reserve, Giorgio
Givenchy Pi (various)
Goldfield & Banks Australia Desert Rosewood
Gucci Guilty
Guerlain Bois d'Armenie, Arsene Lupin Voyou, Habit Rouge, Coriolan
Halston Catalyst, Z
Hermes Terre d'Hermes (various), Rocabar
Hugo Boss Dark Blue
Imaginary Authors Memoirs of a Trespasser
Issey Miyake l'Eau d'Issey Intense
Jil Sander Man II
Karl Lagerfeld Photo, KL
Kenzo Jungle
Lancome Sagamore
Lanvin Avant Garde
Laura Biagiotti Roma
Leonard Cuir d'Ambre
L'Erbolario Dolcelisir
Marly Oajan
Mauboussin pour Lui in Black
M. Micallef Jadu SE
Nino Cerruti
O Boticario Coffee Duo, Malbec (various)
Pierre Balmain Carbone de Balmain, Ambre Gris
Prada Infusion
Prince Obolenski Russian Leather
Ralph Lauren Chaps
Serge Lutens Ambre Sultan
Thera Cosmeticos Urano
Thierry Mugler A*Men Pur Havane
Tom Ford Atelier d'Orient Plum Japonais
Trussardi Amber Oud
Van Cleef & Arpels Midnight in Paris
Versace Versus
Xerjoff Mamluk
Valentino Vendetta
Yves St. Laurent Body Kouros, Jazz Prestige

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 06-30-2020, 11:20 AM
#45
User Info
Aromatic and Herbaceous


The term 'aromatic' is sometimes used, especially by laymen, to refer to the assertive, fresh fragrance produced by sweet balsamic and resinous green-herbal notes, such as that of pure lavender essence.  But strictly speaking, it means an organic compound with a benzene (or arene) hydrocarbon ring structure.  The name was originally given to these compounds, before their chemical structure was known, because of their somewhat sweet scent.  Aromatic notes are not typically syrupy sweet, but are not at all bitter either.  Aromatic compositions are most typically found in fragrances for men.

Herbaceous aromatic materials pair quite well with citruses and spices, in that way lending themselves to fragrances for women as well as unisex perfumes, in addition to the better known masculine ones.  Lavender is the prototypical aromatic substance and is used very commonly in perfumery.  With its pleasant association with the outdoors and cleanliness, it is a mainstay of the fougère/fern family and frequently is combined with ferny smells with which it has overlapping qualities.  The term 'aromatic fougère' is used especially with masculine fragrances, forming a subclassification typified by heavier use of cool, refreshing herbal top notes.  Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche pour Homme is the perfect example of this genre.

Aromatic accents are used with classic cologne-like notes, providing a somewhat sharper, tonic scent such as that of the 4711 Acqua Colonia series, and are also used to provide a contrasting brightness with darker resinous notes such as incense, as is found in Serge Lutens Encens et Lavande.

In addition to lavender, herbal contributors of aromatic-green camphorous notes, frequently used together in combination, include rosemary and sage, present for example in the top notes of Dior Eau Sauvage, Caron pour Un Homme, and Guerlain Habit Rouge, as well as cumin, mugwort, star anise, and other plants with a very intensive grassy-spicy scent.  Examples include artemisia, basil, estragon, marjoram, peppermint, tea, and tobacco.

Other well-known fragrance products with a prominent aromatic nature include:

Acca Kappa White Moss
Acqua di Parma Blu Mediterraneo series
Alfred Dunhill Pure
Alt-Innsbruck Eau de Cologne
Amouage Sunshine Men
Annick Goutal Eau de Lavande
Aramis A, Black, and New West for Him
Atkinsons Rockford and Sport Blue Sky
Aubusson Man in Blue
Azzaro Aqua Verde and Pour Homme LE 2014
Baruti Berlin Im Winter
Borsari Acqua della Macchia Mediterranea
Brooks Brothers New York for Gentlemen
Burberry Summer for Men
Bvlgari Eau Parfumee au The Bleu
By Kilian Moonlight in Heaven
Calvin Klein Eternity Summer and Reveal Men
Caron Pour Un Homme
Caswell Massey Michelsen's Bay Rum
Christian Dior Fahrenheit Summer 2006 and Eau Sauvage
Claus Porto Agua de Colonia No. 4 Spearmint Tea
Coty Gravity series
Crabtree & Evelyn Black Absinthe
Creed Silver Mountain Water
Davidoff Cool Water Freeze Me
Flamboyant Royal White
Floris Lavender
Giorgio Armani Code Ice and Diamonds Summer Fraiche
Givenchy Insense series
Hermes Eau de Gentiane Blanche
Jil Sander Ultrasense
Kenneth Cole Blue and New York Men
Marbert Man Personality
Masaki Matsushima M
Maurer & Wirtz 4711 series
Paco Rabanne Ultraviolet series and XS Sensual Summer
Paul Sebastian Fine Cologne
Penhaligon's Douro and Lavandula
Perry Ellis 360 Degrees and Portfolio Green
Pierre Cardin Vertige
Ralph Lauren Polo Red White & Blue
Roger & Gallet L'Homme
St. Charles Shave Bulgarian Lavender
Santa Maria Novella lavanda Imperiale, Porcellana, Potpourri
Serge Lutens Laine de Verre
Taylor of Old Bond Street Luxury Lavender Water
The Body Shop White Musk
Tom Ford Lavender Palm
Truefitt & Hill 1805
Yves St. Laurent Kouros Eau d'Ete 2006

The term 'herbaceous' often is used more broadly to refer to components derived from or reminiscent of herbal plants in general, which produce a naturally cool, dry, leafy, or hay-like note, such as chamomile, lavender, rosemary, or clary sage.  The term 'grassy' is used to refer to a similar but different green, sharp tone like the scent of a freshly mowed lawn or crushed green leaves.  Examples include the fragrances of Balmain Vent Vert and L'Artisan Premier Figuier.  It should be noted, however, that 'herbaceous' and 'grassy' are not exactly the same as 'aromatic.'  Purely herbaceous or grassy materials typically are cool (and especially produce that sensation when blotted and pressed to the lips), while more characteristically aromatic substances tend to be spicy and warm.

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Fragrance Concentrations

Perfume products are a blend of a scent and a base, never just a pure fragrance. The scent is composed of essences, oils, and aromatic compounds. The base usually is either ethanol (ethyl alcohol) (or 'rectified spirit,' highly concentrated ethanol that has been purified by means of repeated distillation) or water or a mix of alcohol and water. Scent is not used alone because it would be overly strong and too expensive and because the base helps the scent to radiate off the skin and project farther. In addition, alcohol in the base acts as a stabilizing agent to preserve the more volatile oils in a perfume. However, some fragrances are offered in alcohol-free forms for those with skin sensitivity to alcohol. Some perfume oils also can be diluted with neutral, unscented oils such as fractionated coconut oil or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil.

The fragrances that are applied to the skin are meant to be absorbed so that their oils blend with the skin's natural oils, resulting in a unique scent. Thus it is thought best to apply them, especially those of higher concentrations, to pulse points where the blood flow is closest to the surface and the constant temperature can release the scent of the oils to the air.

The industry is not standardized for concentrations, and perfumers use different definitions for the types of fragrances, with various 'expert' sources providing different ranges of concentration (by percent volume of perfume oil) for them. But a general consensus is that the aromatic compound concentrations are as follows:

Eau fraîche 1-3%
Aftershave 2-5% (usually less than 4%)
Cologne/Eau de cologne (EdC) 2-8%
Eau de toilette (EdT) 5-15% 
Eau de parfum (EdP) 15-20%
Parfum/Perfume 20-50%
[Image: REyn81a.jpg]

The terminology is imprecise. The oil in an EdP from a given perfumery will always have a higher concentration than an EdT from the same house, which in turn will always have a higher concentration than an EdC. However, perfumers use different range definitions for the various types of fragrances, as well as varying amounts of scent oils in their mixtures, so an EdT from one house may actually have a higher concentration than an EdP from another house. In addition, some fragrances with the same product name from a given perfumer but with different concentrations may also have different oil mixtures. For example, in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be 'tweaked' to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes; so the EdP, EdT, and EdC may in fact be different compositions. And in some cases, words such as extrême, intense, or concentrée that might be interepreted as indicating a higher aromatic concentration actually refer to completely different fragrances, related only because of similar accords. An example is Chanel Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur Concentrée.

As the oil percentage increases, so does the intensity and - generally - the longevity and sillage of the scent, although the longevity can vary depending upon other factors such as the different component proportions of the accord. Historically, women's fragrances had higher levels of aromatic compounds than men's fragrances, and those marketed to men were typically sold as EdT or EdC rather than EdP or perfume. This is changing as fragrances become more unisex. However, women's fragrances still mainly appear only in EdT, EdP, and parfum concentrations.

Eau fraîche ('fresh water' or 'cool water') is the most diluted version of a fragrance, usually with 1-3% perfume oil in alcohol and water. It is often marketed with a name such as splash, mist, or 'veil.' Aftershaves have about the same oil concentration range but have added ingredients for beneficial skin effects (soothing, moisturizing, etc.). Eau fraîche and aftershave are usually applied by hand, and eau fraîche is often applied during or right after bathing. Although some contain alcohol, they usually are mostly water and are intended just to refresh the skin. Aftershave's original purpose was as scented alcohol, to be used as an antiseptic for cuts from shaving, with medicinal herbs or balms such as witch hazel often added to clean and soothe. With advances in personal hygiene, aftershaves in recent decades also have become sources of both pleasing scents and skin sensations for the overall shave experience, although they usually still have relatively high levels of alcohol. With their very low scent concentrations, both aftershave and eau fraîche scents tend to last no more than an hour.

Cologne (or eau de cologne, EdC) first appeared in Europe in the 17th century as fragrance compounds to counteract odors from poor hygiene. But the term 'cologne' itself originally was created in Köln, Germany, as the name for a low-concentration citrus fragrance. It is said that in 1709, Giovanni Maria Farina created what he called Kölnisch Wasser (Cologne Water), named after his new town of residence but intended to remind him of an Italian spring morning, with mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after rain. (It was also believed to have the power to ward off bubonic plague.) Historical examples of cologne include Mäurer & Wirtz 4711 (1799) and Guerlain Eau de Cologne Impériale (1853). In the 20th century the name has become a generic term for a lighter, less concentrated interpretation of a stronger product, typically a parfum. More recently the term has been used somewhat imprecisely in North American to denote masculine fragrances in general. In the same way that a woman may be said to wear 'perfume,' regardless of the actual fragrance concentration, a man is said to wear a 'cologne,' even when it actually is an EdT. Colognes typically are light-bodied and fresh, sometimes with a delicate bergamot citrus head. They are composed of 2-8% perfume oils in alcohol and water, most often around 5%, and they tend to be used especially in fragrances for younger people. Colognes can be sold in spray bottles or 'splash' bottles. The scent usually lasts for about 2 hours on the skin. A cologne is often the lightest concentration of a given line of fragrance products. Colognes have minimal alcohol content, remaining from the alcohol used to distill the aromatic compounds; thus they are less drying, and they don't have the antibacterial, astringent, and soothing and healing properties of aftershaves and should not be applied to freshly shaved skin.

Eau de toilette (EdT) is usually just a diluted eau de parfum. It most often comes in a spray bottle, with a composition of 5-15% (most often around 10%) pure essence dissolved in alcohol, and generally lasts for 3-4 hours with lower quality ones such as those sold in drug stores and 5-8 hours for those of higher quality. EdT is actually the precursor of colognes, dating back to use in 14th century Hungary. The current name is derived from a 19th century French term for the practice of personal grooming (faire sa toilette or 'getting ready') in the powder room, with the product added to bath water or applied to the skin at the dressing table after bathing. Eaux de toilettes are generally the best-selling form of a particular fragrance. EdT is considered by some to be most appropriate for daywear, and it is the most common form of masculine perfume products.

Eau de parfum (EdP) or Millésime (sometimes included in the perfume category and, in fact, frequently sold labeled as 'perfume') usually has a concentration in the 15-20% range, typically ~15%, and also comes in a spray bottle. It is a more common variant than parfum since it is more affordable, and some perfumers only market an eau de parum as their luxury version of a fragrance rather than an additional parfum. Its scent can last around 8-10 hours, allowing a single application to last throughout most of a day or evening. Some consider EdP to be best for nightwear or more formal occasions. While it has a higher concentration of alcohol than parfum, it generally is better for dry, sensitive skin than fragrance types with lower levels of aromatic compounds (and higher alcohol levels), such as EdT or cologne. A less common term for it, arising in the 1970s and popular mainly in the 1980s, is parfum de toilette (PdT).

Esprit de parfum (ESdP) is a seldom-used term for a fragrance with a strength concentration in between those of EdP and parfum (generally in the 15-25% range).

Parfum/Perfume (from the Latin phrase per fumum, meaning 'through smoke') is slightly oilier, composed usually of 20-30% pure essence and having a scent lasting up to 24 hours. The first fragrance labeled as a 'parfum' was Guerlain Jicky in 1889. Perfumes come in a spray bottle or a dab bottle, the latter offering more control of application than the spray atomizer. 'Extract,' 'perfume extract' or 'elixir' is a subcategory of perfume with an even higher concentration, sometimes up to 50%.  Some argue that perfumes offer the best value for the cost, since the fragrance lasts much longer with even a small amount, and they do not require reapplication later to maintain the skin scent. In addition, the lower alcohol content of perfumes can make them a better choice for those with skin that tends to dry. Some people recommend application of an EdP or parfum to one's clothing in addition to or instead of the skin, especially if the skin is sensitive to any of the ingredients; but others counsel against this since the fragrance does not interact with the skin oils and evaporates more quickly, and some of the products can stain clothing.

Some traditionalist experts argue that an aftershave and a fragrance product (cologne, EdT, EdP, or parfum) that are used together should always be from the same fragrance line, but this is by no means a consensus opinion, and increasingly consumers are experimenting with combinations of lines that balance and complement each other.

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